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# variation

variation (statistical)
The greater part of empirical research is concerned with the characteristics of groups, or aggregate social entities, rather than individual cases; that is, with men or women in general, rather than any particular man or woman. A range of statistical measures of association are employed to describe the features of groups, or types of case in the aggregate. Most of them are based on the normal distribution , the Binomial distribution , or the Poisson distribution , from which a number of statistical summary measures are derived. The mean, mode, and median provide measures of central tendency, the most common or typical value in the distribution, which coincide when the distribution is normal. Measures of dispersion attempt to concentrate information about the general pattern in single summary statistics. These include the range, mean deviation, quartile deviation, decile range, and the standard deviation, which is by far the most important. One of the properties of the normal distribution is that about 68 per cent of all cases are contained within one standard deviation on either side of the mean, about 95 per cent lie within two standard deviations, and some 99.73 per cent lie within three standard deviations on either side of the mean. The standard deviation of a distribution thus summarizes a great deal of information about the overall dispersion, the degree of clustering or concentration around the mean. The variance is the square of the standard deviation, and has the property of being additive. Analysis of variance measures variance within sub-groups in the data-set, and between the averages of these sub-groups. See also measurement ; sampling.

Dictionary of sociology. 2013.

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• variation — [ varjasjɔ̃ ] n. f. • 1314; lat. variatio 1 ♦ État de ce qui varie au cours d une durée; suite des changements qui affectent ce qui varie. ⇒ changement, évolution. « La variation du regard en vitesse, en direction, en durée » (Valéry). « La… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

• Variation — means a change within population* Biodiversity * Genetic diversity, differences within a speciesPhysics: * Magnetic variation, difference between magnetic north and true north, measured as an angle * Variation (astronomy), any perturbation of the …   Wikipedia

• variation — Variation. s. f. v. Changement. La variation des tesmoins. il y a beaucoup de variation dans ses depositions. la variation des heretiques rend leur doctrine suspecte. la variation du temps. la variation des vents. On dit sur Mer, La variation de… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

• Variation — Va ri*a tion, n. [OE. variatioun, F. variation, L. variatio. See {Vary}.] [1913 Webster] 1. The act of varying; a partial change in the form, position, state, or qualities of a thing; modification; alternation; mutation; diversity; deviation; as …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• variation — var‧i‧a‧tion [ˌveəriˈeɪʆn ǁ ˌver ] noun [countable, uncountable] a difference or change in the normal amount or appearance of something: • Labor figures in both reports are adjusted for seasonal variation (= variation that depends on the time of …   Financial and business terms

• Variation — (lat. variare „verändern“), die spontane oder gewollte Abänderung von Informationsfolgen oder Eigenschaften: Variation (Musik), eine Komposition, die ein Thema nacheinander durch vielfältige melodische, harmonische und rhythmische Abwandlungen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

• variation — late 14c., from O.Fr. variation, from L. variationem (nom. variatio) a difference, variation, change, from pp. stem of variare to change (see VARY (Cf. vary)). The musical sense is attested from 1801 …   Etymology dictionary

• variation — variation. См. изменчивость. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

• Variation — (v. lat.), 1) Veränderung, Abänderung, Abwechselung; Variatio delectat, Veränderung erfreut, Abwechselung gewährt Vergnügen; 2) (Bot.), das Abändern, Bilden von Varietäten, s.d.; 3) (Math.), s.u. Combinationslehre C), vgl. Variationsrechnung; 4)… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

• Variation — Variation, die Bildung aller Anordnungen von je p Gliedern, in welche n Elemente gebracht werden können. Solche Anordnungen heißen Variationen p ter Klasse; variieren heißt: solche Anordnungen bilden. Die Variationen von a, b, c zur zweiten… …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

• Variation — (lat.), Veränderung, in der Mathematik eine Kombination (s.d.) mit Umkehrung der Reihenfolge …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon